An international survey on multilingual practices in K-12 classes and a high school linguistic ethnography on under-studied multilinguals.
Classroom Approaches to CLIL & Translanguaging Inventory (CACTI)
All over the world, subject content is being taught to students who speak English as an Additional Language, called Content Language Integrated Learning (CLIL), even in countries where English is not the dominant language. In such classes, people are constantly translanguaging: using multiple languages to learn and navigate the social life of the class. How this plays out in different CLIL classes around the world, based on factors like geographic location, subject taught, age group, linguistic composition of the class, and language repertoire of the teacher is the question this survey aims to answer.
“Laissez Faire” Translanguaging in Two High School English Classes
This study investigated the multilingual practices in a sheltered English 9 and an ESL 9/10 class in Honolulu which can be described as “laissez faire translanguaging” (LFTL) since they emerge when teachers permit the use of languages other than English but do not explicitly teach students to harness these as learning resources. Students spoke Cantonese, Cebuano, Chuukese, Ilokano, Ilonggo, Mandarin, Marshallese, Samoan, Tagalog and Vietnamese as first/heritage languages. I studied how they used language(s), which individuals benefited more from LFTL and why, and what affordances and limitations can be found in the TL students did in the absence of explicit bi/multilingual pedagogy.